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Although research and interests in twice-exceptionality (2e) have been increasing in the last few decades, most studies have focused on the definition, identification, and academic achievement in twice-exceptional students. Such focus can be understandable due to varying definitions, research operationalizations, and the lack of a typical twice-exceptional profile (Lee & Ritchotte, 2018; Wellisch & Brown, 2013). There is considerably less research focused on cognitive characteristics and least research focused on investigating non-cognitive factors influencing twice-exceptional performance and development (Beckmann & Minnaert, 2018). This paper serves to summarize factors that have been found to impact twice-exceptional, organized through a multi-systems (e.g., interpersonal, intrapersonal, contextual/situational, sociocultural, and socio-economical) approach, starting from individual variables to larger and more distal systems.


Contextual Factors Learning Non-Cognitive Factors Sociocultural Factors Socioeconomic Factors

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How to Cite
Lim, L. (2021). Understanding Twice-exceptionality (2e): A Multi-systems Perspective. International Journal of Childhood Education, 2(1), 1–11.